Superphosphate is a high-impact phosphorus fertilizer. Phosphorus is the main active ingredient of the reactant. Fertilizer can act in several ways:
- improving the root system of plants,
- maintain or restore healthy development and growth of plants,
- increase yields,
- improving the quality of the crop (for example, noted a greater protein content in cereals, oils, canola, soybean),
- slow oxidative processes and gain reduction, as in soil and in ground.
As part of superphosphate contains phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, nitrogen, and magnesium. Sulfur is particularly valuable in the cultivation of legumes, cereals and oil crops. Calcium neutralizes soil acidity. Magnesium is indispensable in the farms targeted for the cultivation of potatoes. Superphosphate fertilizer offered to the consumer in the form of powder and granular form. Powdered preparation is much cheaper than granular, but is less effective in a number of options to apply. However, to make compost is recommended powdered version, because of easier mixing and dilution with other ingredients of complex mixtures.
Simple superphosphate prepared by treating milled apatite or phospharite of sulfuric acid. Under the action of sulfuric acid on phosphate raw material is decomposed apatite or phosphorite with the formation of water-soluble mono-substituted calcium phosphate.
Simple superphosphate from apatite contains 14-20% digestible phosphorus, based on P 2 O 5. Most of the phosphorus in superphosphate is in the form monocalciumfosfat, 5-5,5% of the mass is contained in a fertilizer-free phosphoric acid. In the superphosphate is a small amount of dicalcium phosphate CaHPO4 -2 H 2 O, and tricalcium phosphate, iron phosphate and aluminum. Superphosphate is estimated on the content of digestible phosphorus in it, which is soluble in water and citrate solution (ammonia solution limogsho-sour ammonium). Digestible phosphorus in superphosphate is 88-98% of the total content.
Granulated superphosphate is produced in the form of granular in size of 1-4 mm. Granulated superphosphate has good physical properties: non-caking, keeps good dissipation. At granulation, free phosphoric acid is neutralized and superphosphate is dried, so the water content and free phosphoric acid is reduced to 1-4%, respectively, and 1-1, 5%.
Utilization rate of phosphorus from superphosphate in a year of its making in up sowing application separately under the plow is 10-15% of the introduced quantity, and for row application increases in a half – twice times. During 2-3 years of superphosphate phosphorus, utilization is approximately 40%.
To obtain high yields of sugar beet, corn, flax, potatoes, cereals, vegetables and other crops is useful to combine the introduction of super phosphate fertilizer, mostly prior to seeding with the introduction of a small dose of it in rows or holes during planting. This creates good conditions for plant nutrition with phosphorus as in the first period of growth due to increase because of the row fertilizing, as in subsequent periods due to the main fertilizer made by a plow. However, in soils with high content of available phosphorus or by making very high doses of phosphorous fertilizers application of superphosphate in rows at sowing cannot give effect.